Although a smart city is a complex system of systems, three parts are key—visions, components, and functions:
Components include the variety of hardware, software, and data that undergird the smart city. These inputs include wireless connectivity, data storage facilities, and connected and sensing devices; citizen-facing apps and public portals; and information collected from and about urban activities by public and private entities, as well as a host of legacy data made available to new systems.
Functions include the many administrative, legal, financial, regulatory, and civic arenas tasked with garnering new insights, maintaining the healthy function of a municipality and government, and advancing issue-oriented agendas. These processes include revenue generation, procurement procedures, citizen engagement, and administrative and bureaucratic practices, amongst many others.
Vision includes the many goals that overlay smart city efforts, which range from transparency and efficiency to sustainability and resilience.